Many have a snack at work with sandwiches, but not everyone knows that this name comes from the name of their inventor, English aristocrat Count Sandwich. True, it was long before the sandwiches began to sell in fast food points. Although not so long ago, compared to the life of King Harald the Blue-Teeth, after whom the modern Bluetooth technology was named, known to everyone who uses a mobile phone.
Cardigan: James Thomas Bradnell, 7th Earl of Cardigan
In the wardrobe of many people, you can see a cardigan – a knitted jacket with buttons and no collar. But perhaps not everyone knows that this piece of clothing was named after its inventor, the English General James Thoms Bradnell, 7th Earl of Cardigan. Initially, the cardigan was a vest, which the British military wore under the uniform for warmth, but gradually he moved into the wardrobe of civilians, including women, and got long sleeves.
Maecenas: Guy Tsilniy Maecenas
The concept of “philanthropist” is applicable to a person who at his own expense contributes to the development of science and art. Many of these people went down in history, but it all began with a noble Roman from an Etruscan family named Guy Tsilniy Maecenas, who lived in the 1st century BC. er and became famous as the patron saint of poets. For example, Horaceus Patron presented his estate, and helped Virgil to get rid of violence from a certain centurion and returned the property taken away from the poet.
In addition, the Patron was on friendly terms with the emperor Octavian Augustus and could influence the latter, restraining the brutal impulses of the ruler. According to the testimony of Dion Cassius, the Patron once restrained Augustus from many death sentences, having written only one phrase: Surge tandem, carnifex! (“Yes, it is full of you, butcher!”).
Boycott: Charles Boycott
Full or partial termination of relations with an individual or organization, or boycott, is known in many countries as a method of peaceful resistance. Although boycotting itself was used before, the official name of this type of struggle appeared only at the end of the 19th century and was associated with the name of Charles Boycott, who worked as a manager of the landowner Lord Ern in the Irish county of Mayo.
In 1880, as part of the struggle for a fair rent, the right to remain on the land and the right to freely purchase and sell the land, the Land League of Ireland went on strike and recalled the workers that Lord Erna needed for harvesting on his estate. The boycott as a manager began to fight against this strike, to which the League responded with a campaign to isolate it in the local community.
Neighbors stopped talking to Boycott, did not sit next to him in the church, and shops refused to serve him. As a result, the manager could not stand it and left Ireland, and his name was included in most languages of the world.
Raglan Sleeve: Fitzroy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan
The raglan sleeve is remarkable in that it cuts out together with the shoulder part of the front and back of the product. But, as in the case of the cardigan, this element of clothing came to us from military fashion: it was this cut sleeve preferred by the British field marshal Baron Raglan, who lost his right arm at the Battle of Waterloo.
The non-standard sleeve helped Raglan to conceal the flaw a little, moreover, it was comfortable to wear the uniform of such cut in rainy weather: due to the lack of a seam, the water did not penetrate under the clothes. In addition, such a sleeve allowed the military to use cold weapons, such as a sword, with great convenience.
Sports swimsuit, or leotar: Jules Leotard
Another item of clothing, which originally appeared in the men’s wardrobe, is a sports swimsuit, aka leotard (or leotard). It was named in honor of the French acrobat Jules Leotard, who performed in a similar suit. In the 19th century, leotars wore only circus performers, but in the 20th century, a sports swimsuit entered ballet, rhythmic gymnastics, and other sports, and thanks to aerobics, leotar became popular outdoor clothing in the 1980s: it was worn with leggings and skirts.
Silhouette: Etienne de Silhouette
The word “silhouette” and its meaning are known to everyone, but not everyone guesses that it comes from the name of the French Finance Controller Etienne de Siluet (on the left collage), who became famous for his stinginess and desire to reduce the expenses of Louis XV and his entourage. Of course, this did not contribute to the popularity of the Silhouette, even if his actions were absolutely justified.
Excessive frugality of the Silhouette caused the phrase à la Silhouette, which was used in relation to cheap things. And also in honor of the “stingy” controller, the art of a portrait in the form of a shadow was named – an inexpensive alternative for those who could not afford to order a full-fledged portrait from the artist. Silhouette himself was not the inventor of this technique, but he liked to carry out similar portraits. An example of such a work (the silhouette of Jane Austen, the author of the portrait is Mrs. Collins) you see on the collage on the right.
Whatman: James Whatman
Dense white bond paper with high abrasion resistance was also named after its creator – the English paper manufacturer James Watman – the elder (Eng. James Whatman, in Russian pronunciation – Whatman). Watman himself originally called his invention wove paper (literally “woven paper”), but this name stuck in Russian.
Sax: Adolf Saks
The saxophone was constructed in 1842 by the Belgian master of music Adolf Sachs, who called his invention a mouthpiece fixicle (now obsolete wind instrument). And the name we know “saxophone” was given to this instrument by a friend of Sachs, the French composer Hector Berlioz. By the way, in English the word “saxophone” (saxophone) is often abbreviated to simple “sax” (sax).
Bluetooth: Harald I Bluetooth
The technology of wirelessly combining devices was named after Harald I Sinezuboy, king of Denmark and Norway, who lived in the 10th century (bluetooth literally translates as “blue tooth”), which united nations in modern Denmark and southern Sweden, where this technology was developed. It is believed that the king got his nickname because of the poor condition of the teeth, although they were not blue, but rather black: the word blå at that time meant a darker color than blue.
Female seducer, or Casanova: Giacomo Casanova
The name of this adventurer and lover of amorous adventures has become a household name, but, unlike the literary characters of Lovelace and Don Juan, Giacomo Casanova is a real person. Casanova traveled a lot, he also visited Russia, where he was struck by the fact that the common people and servants consumed a drink that seemed delightful to him: it was kvass.
By the way, the number of women won by Casanova was not so huge even by the standards of the past. This is confirmed by a quotation from the introductory article to the Russian edition of the memoirs of Casanova: “… the Don Juan list“ Casanova can only capture the imagination of a very exemplary family man: 122 women in 39 years … Is this so much – three love adventures a year? ”
Sandwich: John Montague, 4th Earl Sandwich
Sometimes the most ingenious inventions are born thanks to ordinary human laziness. It is quite possible to attribute these things to a sandwich, which came to the world due to the fact that the avid gambler, Count Sandwich, did not want to get up from his seat to have a normal dinner.
The count was in the habit of sitting around the gaming table around the clock and asking him to serve cold beef between two slices of toasted bread, so as not to interrupt his studies and at the same time not so much to soil his hands with food. The well-known sandwich got its name and became an integral part of food culture in big cities.
Paparazzi: Tacio Secchiaroli
Immediately make a reservation: the word “paparazzi” has become a household word because of a character named Paparazzo from Federico Fellini’s painting “Sweet Life”. But the prototype of this hero was the Italian Tazio Sekkyaroli (pictured in the lower left corner), which is considered to be the very first paparazzi in the world – a photographer shooting scenes from the lives of celebrities without their knowledge and consent.
However, after the release of the film Sekkyaroli ceased to be a street photographer and devoted himself to studio work. In particular, he was a personal photographer, Sophie Loren, and remained with him for 20 years.