It should immediately be said that the ancient Romans never set out to kill all the representatives of a people. They even preferred to conquer, subjugate and assimilate even the most sworn enemies, making them part of the Roman power. However, their methods of warfare and the practice of looting enemy cities, after which all surviving residents turned into slavery without exception, sometimes led to the disappearance from the face of the Earth of both individual tribes and entire nations.
The first, with whom the ancient Romans began, were their closest neighbors, the Etruscans. The Romans completely destroyed the huge metropolis located near Rome – the Etruscan city of Veii, whose population reached 350 thousand people. After the third Weyent War, in 396 BC he was captured by Rome, all of his surviving citizens became Roman slaves. The twelve-piece of ancient Etruria was gradually conquered and destroyed by the Romans, until all the former Etruscan lands obeyed Rome. Their population disappeared among the Romans by the 1st century BC.
The next victim of the Romans was Carthage, the implacable enemy of Rome, located in Africa. Carthage was a trading empire that owned lands along the coast and on many islands of the Mediterranean Sea. He controlled almost all maritime trade in this region. Rome spent three Punic wars with him, in the final of the last of them, in 146 BC, Carthage was destroyed to the ground. According to ancient historians, the city burned for six days. All the surviving Romans were enslaved. The ground on which the city was located was sprinkled with salt so that nothing would grow on it.
During the conquest of Rome by Gaul, many local Gallic tribes were exterminated. The most revealing story that happened during the resettlement of the Batavian tribe, mentioned by the ancient Roman historian Tacitus: “The Batavians, before their resettlement for the Rhine, were part of the Hutt people; due to internal strife, they moved to the most remote part of the Gallic coast, where at that time there were still no settled inhabitants, and they also occupied an island located nearby, washed in front by the Ocean, and behind and from the side by the Rhine. Neither the wealth, nor the power of Rome, nor the alliance with other tribes shortened them, and they still supply the empires with only fighters and weapons. ”
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Batavas were very useful to the Romans, who willingly recruited them to the Roman allied detachments under the legions. However, the lands that Tacitus calls deserted before their settlement by the Batavs belonged to the Gallic tribe of the Eburons. Its former population in the winter of 54–53 BC by order of Julius Caesar was completely exterminated. The reason was the participation of the Eburons in the anti-Roman uprising. All settlements were burned, property was looted, the very name of the Eburons disappeared from history forever. But these people lived here, according to archaeologists, for many centuries.
An even larger example is Dacia, which became a Roman province in 106 CE. From time immemorial, Dacians have lived on lands currently located on the territory of modern Romania. They belonged to the Thracian tribes and had their own state with the capital in the city of Sarmizegetusa. After the devastating battles with the Roman Empire, the local population was greatly reduced. The Romans themselves settled on these lands, and also allied tribes resettled in Dacia. When in the III century. AD Goths captured the Roman Dacia, there was practically no one to resist them. The last Roman colonists, by then mixed with the assimilated local population, left these lands on the orders of Emperor Aurelian in 271 A.D.