1347-1354 years. Europe
In May 1347, a modest notary of the city chamber in Rome, the son of an innkeeper, named Niccolò di Lorenzo Gabrini or, as he was often called Kolo di Rienzo , was tired of the people of the Pope of Rome, and organized a coup d’état.
The rebels under his leadership, the Romans expelled notable signorers sitting in the Senate from Rome. Niccollo proclaimed himself a tribune, began to introduce the orders of the ancient Republican Rome and proclaimed Rome the capital of the world.
In order not to spoil relations with Pope Clement VI (1), Niccolò reigned in the Vatican a papal legate who represented the interests of Clement VI.
Niccolò called on the people of Italy to expel the aristocrats, to overcome fragmentation and to revive the ancient Roman republic.
It is clear that the nobility of Italy began to unite against Niccollo and his appeals.
And here Niccolò made a mistake peculiar to many: instead of lowering taxes, the tribunes raised them. His popularity began to fall. This took advantage of Pope Clement. He betrayed di Rienzo anathema and excommunicated him, while the legate of Pope Clement at the Vatican organized an uprising of nobles and her hangers-on in Rome.
First of all, the rebels occupied the churches so that the people of Niccolò did not set off the alarm and did not call the people of Rome to arms. Realizing that the case is lost, di Rienzo fled from Rome, disguised as a monk. He hurried to Prague, hoping that the Czech king and concurrently the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation Charles IV (2) would assist him, according to their previous treaty against Louis of Bavaria, rival Charles in the struggle for the imperial crown.
However, Niccolò miscalculated.
As soon as he arrived in Prague, in July 1350, he was arrested by order of the Archbishop of Prague. And the emperor Charles hurried to give di Rienzo to Pope Clement VI. The latter sent Niccolò to the prison of the city of Avignon, where in those years the residence of the popes of Rome was located. And Niccolò would not escape the penalty if the plague had not hit Europe. The death rate in Avignon was such that the pope was not up to Niccolò and the latter managed to escape from prison.
For a while he was hiding. But in 1352 a new pope, Innocent VI (3) , took the throne of the Vatican . And although he was a very old man, he managed to turn the Romans against himself. In Rome, there was a coup again and a certain Francesco Baroncelli expelled senators and papal minions and, following the example of Niccolò, proclaimed himself a tribune of the Roman Republic. Not knowing how to deal with Francesco, Dad recalled Niccolò and demanded to find him.
They found Niccolo, removed his anathema and excommunication from the church, forgave all his sins and asked him to return to Rome and lead the Eternal City.
Niccolò agreed. With the help of papal money, he not only returned to Rome, but also regained the reins of government. Francesco, on the orders of Niccolò, was executed for something.
Upon learning of the death of Francesco, Pope Innocent asked the cardinals from the noble Roman house Colonna to destroy Niccolò. They organized an uprising, and on October 8, 1354 Niccolò was killed by the rebels.
Niccol did his job – he returned Rome to the Pope, and therefore became unnecessary. Everything according to Shakespeare: the Moor has done his work – the Moor must die.