It is believed that the last war that the United States waged on its territory ended in 1865. But then there is an obvious stretch. The country almost from the day of the appearance of the first settlers led incessant hostilities, which then subsided, then passed into the active phase. Just the localization of the conflict as such was not – fought almost the entire territory.
From the very beginning of colonization until 1890 the war did not stop. The aliens were fought by those who originally lived on these lands. These were Indian wars, which are usually divided into a great many episodes, although in fact it was a single process, it just did not fit into the chronology of one generation.
It can be said that all the symbols of the bygone era focused on one photo.
Even when the French were sorting out relations with the British (and those with the Spaniards), or when the crown tried to reason the mischievous colony, the fighting with the Indians did not stop. During the civilian part, the forces of the northerners kept to the west of the main conflict – just to reason the tribal unions, which from time to time began to rage.
All this time, the tactics repeated, by and large, Roman developments. First, the base on the coast, then a gradual expansion of influence. Forts were put, from which the garrison occasionally crawled out for punitive operations. Gradually, the network of fortifications from the eastern coasts spread to the western. And so was the conquest of America.
Officers Fort Bridger – one of the strongholds
Movement from north to south (and in the opposite direction) was made easier – the sea transport was mastered at the dawn of human civilization. Here the transverse vector was more complicated.
By the XIX century, the bulk of the Indian tribes pushed to the west, for the most part on the reservation. More or less the world has stabilized. It just turned out that the stability of this temporary and imaginary – historical processes are not hampered half way. Sooner or later they must reach the end. Just the case was hampered by the lack of convenient transport.
The first stations of the American railways were originally built on the basis of high autonomy. Even water-lifting buildings were installed with pumps on wind energy. Therefore, a large tank cumulative. Although in Europe for the same purpose usually put the steam engine. But it is too dependent on external resources. Perhaps if the Indians concentrated on the transport arteries, they would have lasted longer
As soon as communications got better – the railway played the role of a connecting artery – wars broke out with a new force. Two things added fuel to the fire, as they say – the nationwide need for a stable food resource (cattle played a role, and that required pastures) and the presence of deposits of useful metals in the western part of the mainland. As a result, the previous agreements of whites with the Indians began to be violated everywhere.
But the newly awakened war could no longer last long. And before that, technical superiority over the Indians was overwhelming at the beginning of the conquest, and by the described period it had become completely transcendental. The choice for the aborigines seemed simple: give in to strength or simply disappear.
Indians weapons never met modern (at that time) standards. In the course were more outdated systems. In this photo, you can say they have a completely new
Probably, if the Indians could unite (their unions happened, but they were local, parochial in nature), then the story would have taken some other shape. But they spent too much time on disassembling each other. In addition, their world, their mentality was too different from what the white man opposed to them. This is noticeable even in the applied tactics. Individual heroism was valued, not group cohesive actions. The main goal was proclaimed not victory, but glory, often very conditional. In the fight with the man of the European warehouse, such impracticality was costly. Having remained, as a matter of fact, still in the Neolithic period, the Indians fought with the people of the industrial revolution era – the chances of victory were initially zero.
Fought two worlds, but each of them was not homogeneous. Among the Indians, some tribes roamed for the buffalo, hunting for them, while others – had long been sedentary and built completely capital dwellings, so that there was an opportunity to engage in agriculture.
The white man has nothing to do with it. This is the home of the Indians. It was just that in each region, it was built in the way that the local resource and lifestyle allowed. So do not assume that the Indian is a hardened nomad.
For whites, the frontier west did not at all resemble the already stabilized east. Along the coast, the cities turned into stone jungles and lived according to completely written laws, and on the frontier the settlements represented a mixture of nomads with a warehouse of a trading station where people trusted the strongest more.
Many of the heroes of the West came to a place during the war of the North and the South – in fact, they did not have to reorganize themselves in a military manner. They just went from one front to another. Exactly the same process was repeated in 1865th – in the opposite direction. Just a single form was not necessary to wear and the enemy has changed. A lot of legends of that time lived like this – starting with Buffallo Bill and ending with his temporary protege of Bill Hickok.
Of course, some of the former tenants of the western frontiers have not returned to their homeland due to irretrievable losses. But, on the other hand, the war produced fresh cadres who could not do anything – only to fight. Plus, the next gold rush of 1869 (and then a few more), the discovery of the next deposits in the mountains, and the deed is done – few masses of people rushed to the west. What could not like the Indians – and did not like.
When the buffalo were exterminated, many Indian tribes simply had nothing to eat. Animal bones were harvested for further processing. Fertilizer made – bone meal
The error of the Indians was one more thing – they decided to stop there. Alas. History regards such a static position as a sign of an obvious loser and conducts rejection. Life means development – moreover, permanent.
It cannot be said that this mistake was of a single character. Not at all – there are many examples of this. At one time, imperial China decided to become decrepit in proud isolation, while Japan fenced off from the whole world and decided to remain forever in feudalism. Alas – the rest of the world did not understand such behavior and did not forgive.
Well, what were the chances … Artist: Charles Schreyvogel. Subscribe to the channel and put “thumbs up”!
Lessons left the Celestial and Chrysanthemum expensive. The latest fees on the bills have already passed in the twentieth century. But these peoples thought about it in time and realized their mistakes. And then the story gave them a chance to improve. The Indians did not see such an insight. So the natural result was the massacre of December 29, 1890 on the Wounded Knee creek, when it was all over – the Indians finally lost.
In 1895, the US government summed up and peculiarly curtailed all the fights, issuing an ultimatum, according to which the Indians stopped all kinds of civil strife and assimilated into the already formed society. Or voluntarily die out on reservations, continuing to persist in their desire to remain savages. Those who decided to merge with society now make up 1.6 percent of the total US population (0.9% remained at the time of the ultimatum). Those who decided to oppose, simply did not remain – they naturally disappeared.