First, you must know that Jupiter does not have a hard, rocky surface, as we have here on Earth. Thus, “to step on the surface of Jupiter” is literally impossible, since Jupiter is a gas giant, which means that it does not have a solid surface on which to step.
So, what happens if an astronaut lands on the planet, assuming that he is wearing a spacesuit that cannot be destroyed (this is, of course, purely hypothetical!)
It will be fair if we first understand what the phrase “surface of Jupiter” actually means.
Jupiter – the gas giant
As you probably already know, Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. In fact, it is so huge that it can accommodate about 1300 Earths. Jupiter is a gas giant consisting only of hydrogen and helium, just like the sun.
The bands that are visible on the planet are actually red, yellow, brown and white clouds, which are part of the atmosphere of Jupiter.
Interestingly, Jupiter does not have a surface, at least, such as on our planet. After all, when we talk about the surface of the planet, we imagine in our imagination in imagination the image of a stony, solid earth. Surprisingly, this is not the case with Jupiter.
Surface of jupiter
Jupiter has no solid surface. This is just a large accumulation of gases (and some other substances) that are collected in the shape of a ball. And, like the atmosphere of the Earth, the gases present in the atmosphere of Jupiter become thinner and thinner as they move away from the planet, until at some point they become one with the interplanetary space.
So let’s assume that you fell from a certain height far beyond the visible atmosphere of Jupiter. As soon as you find yourself within 300,000 km from a certain level (we will call this level “surface”, because it is a level where the gas pressure is 1 bar, almost equal to the pressure on the Earth’s surface), you will die from radiation poisoning …
However, since you have an indestructible spacesuit ( you remember! ), You really won’t die. Instead, you begin to accelerate (due to the huge mass of Jupiter), falling through the upper atmosphere and burn like a meteor.
In a few minutes you will also fall, but through an area where the pressure is already 2 bar (twice the average surface pressure on Earth). Here you will pass through various types of clouds of ammonia ice, ammonium sulfide and ammonium hydrosulfide.
These clouds are not much different from ordinary clouds, but they are brown in color and become increasingly brown as you dive into them.
The lower you fall, the higher the atmospheric pressure will rise. The ambient temperature will also be quite low (about 40 degrees Celsius). You will pass through clouds of ice crystals, and everything around you will begin to darken. In a few more minutes you will find yourself in complete darkness and feel the temperature rise above 100 degrees.
The further you fall, the higher the temperature will rise. As soon as you reach the inner regions of the planet (which space researchers know little about), the pressure and density will become so high that their cumulative effect will keep your speed to a minimum.
Then you get into the layer on which there is a huge ocean of liquid hydrogen. The extremely high pressure here turns gaseous hydrogen into liquid. Jupiter has the highest rotational speed in our solar system, and, rotating, the swirling liquid metal ocean creates the strongest magnetic field among all planets.
Finally, when you reach a level, when the pressure is about 2 million bar, and the temperature is as high as the sun, your descent will end. And your existence too.
Scientists do not reliably know whether Jupiter has a solid core or is it just a gas to the very end. Therefore, it is practically impossible for any person to set foot on any “surface” of Jupiter.