From time to time a thought occurred to many of us – why do airplanes fly? People have long wanted to conquer the sky, more precisely, that part of the atmosphere that is closest to the surface of the planet. Experiments with artificial wings did not give the desired result, then there were light and huge balloons and airships, but the leadership was fixed for a long time for steel and heavy machines. But what makes tons of metal rise up? Physics is again to blame – the main science of nature has pushed progress. The theoretical basis of aeronautics, expressed using a mathematical formula, first appeared in the 16th century and initially concerned only the behavior of a fluid. This is the so-called Bernoulli equation (principle). Like all ingenious, the equation simply describes a whole class of natural phenomena: the pressure of any fluid gas or liquid drops when this very medium increases the flow rate. For example, the pressure of exhaled air is slightly lower than that of the surrounding air. And this is how the Bernoulli equation helps an airplane fly.
The wing of the aircraft has a rather complex shape. The top and bottom of this element has a different curvature – the upper part is more convex and therefore has a larger area. During movement the wing cuts the air and breaks it into two streams. Air jets flowing around the top of the wing move faster than the lower layer, which leads to a drop in pressure. Below, under the wing, the pressure will be much greater.
When the speed of the aircraft increases, the difference between the pressures at the top and bottom of the wing also increases – the aircraft acquires lift. It is the high pressure of the flow from the Earth that allows the multi-ton ship to begin its air travel.
By the way, it follows from the Bernoulli equation and the wing shape that the plane will take off the fastest when it moves against the wind. The wind will significantly accelerate the upper stream above the wing and allow for the necessary lifting force to appear earlier.
The phenomenon discovered by Bernoulli is also well manifested when you heat a stove or a fireplace. As soon as there is a draft in the pipe, the flames flare up and its tongues become longer. Actually, even if you make a fire on a brazier, you apply a purely physical principle.
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